Flood Risk Management in Urban Residential Areas in Dar es Salaam City

Towards Effective Adaptation Strategies – A Case of Mikocheni ‘B’ Settlement



This paper presents findings on a study which was conducted at Mikocheni „B‟ in Kinondoni
Municipality in Dar as Salaam City. The study„s focal point was assessment on how policies and
planning interventions related to flood risks management are implemented, the capacity of storm
water management facilities and coping strategies adopted by the residents against flood risks. The
study delved into assessing underlying causes of flood risks and suggests strategies that will help to
enhance effective flood risks management in Mikocheni „B‟ settlement in particular and Dar es
Salaam in general. The study findings revealed failure in deploying existing planning tools and
inadequate policy coordination and implementation of flood risks management strategies. Actors
involved included government leaders (Regional Administration, Municipal authorities and local
„Mtaa’ leadership), local communities and Community Based Organizations (CBOs). These agencies
were tasked with creating awareness to the people and coordination of policies related with flood risk
management and enforcement of spatial planning standards as per local government regulations and
mandates.. For the local community members in Mikocheni „B', it was established that by not
adhering to the planning and environmental requirements stipulated by different policies and spatial
planning standards, most of the drainage networks were poorly designed, constructed and managed
and therefore face several blockages. In addition to poor drainage system management and network,
it was also found that poor technical design of channels did not consider design factors which help
facilitate drainage in the area. Other contributory factors are lack of enforcement of development
control resulting in illegal extension of buildings, creation of block wall fences and non-adherence to
building lines.
Following the study findings, suggestions are made to include awareness creation to the people on
improved flood risks management. It is also proposed to have proper coordination of different
potential actors to fully participate in flood risks management process. The study recommends that to
get good adaptation strategies „off the ground‟, land use needs to be regulated more easily; and city
service agencies need to be coordinated more effectively to mitigate flood risks. Effective urban
development control by the Municipal authorities and local „Mtaa‟ leaders in collaboration with local
residents will make it easier to respond to emergencies, maintain drainage and enforce regulations
and essential tools for mitigating flood effects.

Key Words: Flood risk, management, climate change, urban planning, policy initiatives, adaptation


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