Land Tenure Regularization in Rwanda: Registration of land rights for women and its impacts on food security

  • Monica Lengoiboni Twente University
  • Liza GROENENDIJK Twente University
  • Appolonie MUKAHIGIRO

Abstract

Securing women land rights through land titling programs is viewed as a potential means for enhancing their tenure security. The expectation is that women may gain greater influence on how to use the land, if they are registered as joint owners. Women are more likely than men to make decisions that improve food and nutrition needs at farm level. Increased level of women decision making through secured tenure rights is expected to have a positive impact on food security.

This research investigated the impacts of registration of land rights for women in Rwanda on food security at household level. The focus was on how women perceive land and land rights; women decision-making on food crop production and programs supporting women farmers. Results show that women perceive land as being a primary source of food, source of livelihoods, and owning land increases their status in society. Women are aware of their land rights and indicated to have obtained security of tenure. However, tenure insecurity is perceived when it comes to the limitations or land use restrictions in the formal land law. The crop intensification program influence the women’s’ decision making in relation to what food crops to grow, giving little room for freedom to grow food crops of their choice. This has implications on food security at household level. Women further indicated that they did not observe an increased harvest of growing food crops after their land rights were registered.

 

Key words: women land rights, food security, land tenure regularization, Rwanda

References

ActionAid. (2013). From marginalization to empowerment: The potential of land rights to contribute to gender equality – observations from Guatemala, India and Sierra Leone.

Agarwal, B. (1994). A Field of One’s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia (p. 572). Cambridge University Press.

Agarwal, B. (2003). Gender and Land Rights Revisited: Exploring New Prospects via the State ,, 3(April), 184–224.

Ali, D. A., Deininger, K., & Goldstein, M. (2014). Environmental and gender impacts of land tenure regularization in Africa: Pilot evidence from Rwanda. Journal of Development Economics, 110, 262–275.

Allendorf, K. (2007). Do Women’s Land Rights Promote Empowerment and Child Health in Nepal? World Development, 35(11), 1975–1988.

Brown, L. et al. (2006). Module I: Gender and Food Security (pp. 11–22).

Daley, E. (2010). Securing Land Rights for Women | Gender and Security. Journal of Eastern African Studies 4(1): 91-113.

Daley, E., Dore-Weeks, R., & Umuhoza, C. (2010). Ahead of the game: land tenure reform in Rwanda and the process of securing women’s land rights. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 4(1), 131–152.

Deere, C. D., Boakye-yiadom, L., Doss, C., Oduro, A. D., Swaminathan, H., Twyman, J., & Suchitra, J. Y. (2010). Women ’ s Land Ownership and Participation in Agricultural Decision-Making : Evidence.

Deere, C. D., Oduro, A. D., Swaminathan, H., & Doss, C. (2013). Property rights and the gender distribution of wealth in Ecuador, Ghana and India. The Journal of Economic Inequality, 11(2), 249–265.

Deininger, K., Ali, D. A., Holden, S., & Zevenbergen, J. (2008). Rural Land Certification in Ethiopia: Process, Initial Impact, and Implications for Other African Countries. World Development, 36(10), 1786–1812.

Enete, A. A., & Amusa, T. A. (2010). Determinants of Women’s Contribution to Farming Decisions in Cocoa Based Agroforestry Households of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Field Actions Science Reports, (Vol. 4).

Ericsson, A. (1999). Women ’ s Access to Land. In UN-FIGConference on land tenure and Cadastral Infrastructures for Sustainable Development (p. 11). Melbourne, Australia.

FAO. (2001). The state of food insecurity in the world 2001. Rome.

FAO. (2002). Gender and access to land.

FAO. (2012). Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security. Rome: FAO.

FAO. (2013). Governing land for women and men. Technical Guide to support the achievement of responsible gender-equitable governance of land tenure (Vol. Technical Guide 1): FAO.

Flick, U. (2014). An introduction to Qualitative research (5th ed.). London: SAGE. 42

Gillingham, P. (2014). Rwanda Land Tenure Regularization Case Study.

Gladwin, C. H., Thomson, A. M., Peterson, J. S., & Anderson, A. S. (2001). Addressing food security in Africa via multiple livelihood strategies of women farmers. Food Policy, 26(2), 177–207.

Godfray, H., Beddington, J., & Crute, I. (2010). Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science.

Government of Rwanda. Organic law Determining the Use and Management of Land in Rwanda, GOR(Ministry of Natural Resources) (2005). Kigali/Rwanda.

Guertin, T. (2013). The Impact of Gender and Land Rights on Food Security in the Horn of Africa.

IFAD. (2011). Women’s Land Rights project: Opportunities and challenges. Retrieved May 25, 2014, from http://www.ifad.org/english/land/women_land/

IFAD (2014). Food Security - a conceptual framework. Retrieved June 01, 2014, from http://www.ifad.org/hfs/thematic/rural/rural_2.htm

Kabeer, N. (1999). Resources, Agency, Achievements: Reflections on the Measurement of Women’s Empowerment. Development and Change, 30(3), 435–464.

Kagitega, N., & Rurenge, N. (2012). Rwanda Land Tenure Regularisation Progress Up To The End Of December 2012.

Maxwell, D., Ahiadeke, C., Levin, C., Armar-Klemesu, M., Zakariah, S., & Lamptey, G. M. (1999). Alternative food-security indicators: revisiting the frequency and severity of `coping strategies’. Food Policy, 24(4), 411–429.

Maxwell, D., & Wiebe, K. (1998). Land Tenure and Food Security : A Review of Concepts , Evidence , and Methods, (129).

Maxwell, S. (1996). Food security: a post-modern perspective. Food Policy, 21(2), 155–170.

Meinzen-Dick, R. S., Brown, L. R., Feldstein, H. S., & Quisumbing, A. R. (1997). Gender, property rights, and natural resources. World Development, 25(8), 1303–1315.

Menon, N., van der Meulen Rodgers, Y., & Nguyen, H. (2014). Women’s Land Rights and Children’s Human Capital in Vietnam. World Development, 54, 18–31.

NISR. (2012). RPHC4 Thematic Report: Population Size, Structure and Distribution | National Institute of Statistics Rwanda. 2012.

Nnadi F.N., Chikaire J., Osuagwu C.O., I. R. A. and E. H. A. (2012). Mobilizing Women for Food Security, Poverty Reduction and Rural Development in Nigeria: The Role of Land Tenure Rights. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2(June), 90–101.

Nguyen, H. L. (2014). Farmers´ land tenure security in Vietnam and China. (Doctoral Thesis), University of Groningen, Groningen.

Nzayisenga, M. J. (2009). Understanding food insecurity in rural Rwanda: how women experience and benefit from government strategies aiming to eradicate food insecurity., 1–20.

Owusu, V., Abdulai, A., & Abdul-Rahman, S. (2011). Non-farm work and food security among farm households in Northern Ghana. Food Policy, 36(2), 108–118.

Payne, G. (1996). Urban land tenure and property rights in developing countries: a review of the literature. London: ODA.

Place, F, Roth, M.and Hazell, P. (1994). Land tenure security and agricultural performance in Africa: Overview of research methodology. In J. W. Bruce and S. E. Migot-Adholla (eds), Searching for land tenure security in Africa (Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 1994)

Polavarapu, A. (2011). Procuring Meaningful Land Rights for the Women of Rwanda. Yale Human Rights and Development Journal, 14(1). 43

Pritchard, M. F. (2013). Land, power and peace: Tenure formalization, agricultural reform, and livelihood insecurity in rural Rwanda. Land Use Policy, 30(1), 186–196.

Quisumbing, A. R. (2013). Generating evidence on individuals’ experience of food insecurity and vulnerability. Global Food Security, 2(1), 50–55.

Rajgor, M. (2008). Women’s perceptions of land ownership: a case study from Kutch District, Gujarat, India. Gender & Development, 16(1), 41–54.

Randolph, S. L., & Sanders, R. (1992). Female farmers in the Rwandan farming system: A study of the ruhengeri prefecture. Agriculture and Human Values, 9(1), 59–66.

Rao, N. (2006). Land rights, gender equality and household food security: Exploring the conceptual links in the case of India. Food Policy, 31(2), 180–193.

Rebublic of Rwanda (2004). National Land Policy.

Roberts, S. L. (1995). Women: the key to food security (Vol. 2).

Rockson, G., Bennett, R., & Groenendijk, L. (2013). Land administration for food security: A research synthesis. Land Use Policy, 32, 337–342.

Rurangwa, E. (2002). Perspective of Land Reform in Rwanda.

Sahu, P. K. (2013). Research Methodology: A Guide for Researchers In Agricultural Science, Social Science and Other Related Fields - Springer (p. 432).

Santos, F., Fletschner, D., & Daconto, G. (2012). Enhancing Inclusiveness of Rwanda’s Land Tenure Regularization Program: Initial Impacts of an Awareness Raising Pilot, 1–36.

Santos, F., Fletschner, D., & Daconto, G. (2014). Enhancing Inclusiveness of Rwanda’s Land Tenure Regularization Program: Insights from Early Stages of its Implementation. World Development, 62, 30–41.

Simbizi, M. C. D., Bennett, R. M., & Zevenbergen, J. (2014). Land tenure security: Revisiting and refining the concept for Sub-Saharan Africa’s rural poor. Land Use Policy, 36, 231–238.

Sraboni, E., Malapit, H. J., Quisumbing, A. R., & Ahmed, A. U. (2014). Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture: What Role for Food Security in Bangladesh? World Development, 61, 11–52.

Uwayezu, E., & Mugiraneza, T. (2011). Land Policy Reform in Rwanda and Land Tenure Security for all Citizens: Provision and Recognition of Women’s Rights over Land . Kigali.

Van der Molen, P. (2013). How Land Administration can contribute to Food Security. In: Proceedings of FIG working week 2013, Abuja, Nigeria, 6-10 May 2013 - Environment for Sustainability.

Van Gelder, J.-L. (2007). Feeling and thinking: Quantifying the relationship between perceived tenure security and housing improvement in an informal neighborhood in Buenos Aires. Habitat International, 31(2), 219–231.

Wiig, H. (2013). Joint Titling in Rural Peru: Impact on Women’s Participation in Household Decision-Making. World Development, 52, 104–119.

Williamson, I., Enemark, S., Wallace, J., & Rajabifard, A. (2010). Land administration for sustainable development. Redlands, California: ESRI.
Published
2016-05-26
How to Cite
LENGOIBONI, Monica; GROENENDIJK, Liza; MUKAHIGIRO, Appolonie. Land Tenure Regularization in Rwanda: Registration of land rights for women and its impacts on food security. Journal of Land Administration in Eastern Africa, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 2, p. 399-414, may 2016. ISSN 2453-5869. Available at: <http://journals.aru.ac.tz/index.php/JLAEA/article/view/62>. Date accessed: 24 nov. 2017.
Section
Full Articles